Oh là là ! J’en vois déjà qui se demande ce que ce titre peut bien cacher… du web vert ?!?!
Et j’en vois d’autres qui savent très bien de quoi il en retourne et qui commence à pâlir…
Pas de panique ! Tout va bien se passer.

Alors oui ! J’ose associer le terme « web » au mot « vert » qui, dans le cas présent, fait bien référence à l’écologie, à l’environnement, etc …

Et oui ! J’ose même dire qu’il est possible que nos sites soient plus verts. Et j’irai même plus loin en précisant que cela devient indispensable aussi bien pour notre chouette planète, mais aussi pour la performance de votre site et pour notre ami Google (et oui, encore lui), roi du référencement web.

Julie : Web Designer engagée

Comme vous le savez, je suis engagée, à titre privé, dans le domaine de l’écologie : je suis membre d’une association locale de transition, végétarienne, consommatrice de produits bio, je fais partie de ceux qui marchent pour le climat ou se rassemblent pour les coquelicots … bref un côté vert chez moi bien plus marqué dans ma vie perso que dans ma vie pro.

Et j’avais vraiment besoin que mes idéaux et mes valeurs fassent aussi partie intégrante de mon travail car, vous en conviendrez, quand quelque chose nous anime, difficile de l’oublier le matin en partant travailler, non ?

Alors oui, je travaille dans le monde du Web qui, oui je le sais, n’est pas le monde le plus écolo qui soit (bien au contraire). Il n’en reste pas moins que (sans l’envie de revenir à l’âge de pierre), j’estime qu’il est important de faire attention au poids du numérique dans nos sociétés et dans nos usages.

C’est avec cet état d’esprit, qu’un jour (il y a déjà un an) je me suis mise en quête d’allier mes convictions écologiques à mon métier de web designer, sans trop savoir comment…
J’avais bien quelques idées de ce que je pouvais mettre en place pour aller dans ce sens : hébergement web vert, poids / limitation des médias, code propre et structuré, …
Mais il me manquait un morceau : ce petit quelque chose auquel me « rattacher » pour me rassurer et sur lequel m’appuyer.

Et après diverses recherches, j’ai enfin découvert que, d’une part, je n’étais pas seule dans cette quête (Youpi !) et, surtout, j’ai découvert un nouveau terme qui allait enfin pouvoir définir l’orientation que je voulais donner à mon travail : l’éco-conception web.

Alors là encore, pas de panique s’il vous plaît. Pour ceux qui seraient déjà partis dans un délire en s’imaginant l’éco-conception web comme un monde de sites internet tristounets, sans images, ni couleurs, un site vide, moche, sans aucune fonctionnalité, où en s’ennuie, etc… revenez parmi nous parce que vous n’y êtes pas du tout !

L’éco-conception web, qu’est-ce que c’est ?

En pianotant sur la toile, vous trouverez divers articles et infos très intéressantes sur le sujet, avec peut-être parfois des approches différentes sur certains points.

Mais tout part d’un constat simple et sans équivoque : le web pollue.
Les serveurs, les échanges et le stockage de ces milliers de données sont un immense gouffre énergétique.
De plus, un nombre immense de sites internet existent déjà sur la toile (dont beaucoup n’ont plus lieu d’être et/ou sont à l’abandon) et des milliers d’autres se créés chaque jour : tout cela pèse lourd numériquement parlant.

L’idée de l’éco-conception web est donc, d’une part, d’avoir conscience de cette pollution numérique.

D’autre part, il s’agit de trouver le juste équilibre entre l’envie et la nécessité d’avoir « un site moderne qui correspond à mon besoin et à ma cible » et la nécessité de limiter certaines ressources pour alléger son emprunte numérique.

Bref, l’éco-conception web c’est faire du web moins impactant, mais aussi (et surtout) plus efficient, avec l’essentiel sans le superflu.
Finalement, j’aurais presque envie de dire que c’est de la conception web « de base », celle que nous pratiquons presque tous inconsciemment si on cherche à optimiser son site pour le rendre plus performant et plus efficace.

Eco-concevoir mon site, ça change quoi concrètement ?

Finalement, un site que je qualifie ici de « vert » (entendez dans une démarche éco-conçue) amène simplement à bien le penser et le réfléchir un minimum en amont (comme dans tous projets web ceci dit).

Si vous êtes client :

  • pensez, par exemple à réduire la taille de vos images avant leur chargement sur le site : est-il vraiment utile de charger une image de 4000px de large si elle n’apparaît qu’en tout petit sur le site ?
  • Demandez-vous aussi si ce chouette slider (diaporama d’images) que vous voulez tant est un simple effet « c’est à la mode, on en voit partout et c’est super sympa » ou si vous en avez réellement l’utilité (entendez, si vous avez de vraies infos intéressantes et cruciales vers lesquelles ces images renvoient).
  • Dîtes-vous aussi que sur votre page d’accueil, nul besoin d’avoir 1001 effets de rebond, parallax ou autres arrivées fracassante de vos textes (souvent, ils servent plus à donner la nausée qu’à autre chose, et niveau Expérience Utilisateur on n’est pas toujours au top).

D’un point de vue technique , il y a tout un tas de pratiques à mettre en place pour tendre vers un site à faible impact numérique :

  • limiter les requêtes Php,
  • pas d’utilisation de Flash,
  • externaliser et minifier ses fichiers Css,
  • utiliser des systèmes de cache,
  • faire un code simple et « propre »,
  • choisir un hébergeur « vert »,
  • et d’autres encore…

Pour en savoir plus, je vous invite à lire la liste de bonnes pratiques à mettre en place.

De plus, notre ami Google aime les sites rapides et performants et vous savez quoi, c’est ce que vous allez gagné à avoir un site plus éco-conçu (oui, oui !). Allez, avouez que c’est plutôt une excellente nouvelle !

Et donc…

Et bien, je pense que nous irons bientôt davantage vers cette pratique (consciemment ou pas) et que vous allez entendre de plus en plus parler de ce terme d’éco-conception web (en tout cas, je le souhaite).

J’espère aussi vous avoir (un peu) convaincus de l’intérêt de penser son site autrement et d’essayer d’appliquer quelques règles d’éco-conception web.

Pour ma part, ça y est, je suis lancée ! J’aurais même la chance de me former sur le sujet fin mars (avec Frédéric Bordage, le Mr Eco-conception Web en France… la classe non ?).

Il existe tout un tas de « bonnes pratiques » pour aller dans ce sens et pour penser ses sites autrement : lancez-vous ! Ce sera bon pour la planète, pour votre référencement naturel, pour la performance de votre site, pour l’expérience utilisateur de vos visiteurs, … bref, pour tout !

Sans être (encore) une experte dans le domaine, j’assimile et applique chaque jour un peu plus de ses principes dans mon travail (sans même que mes clients s’en rendent compte finalement) : cela n’a rien de compliqué, juste un peu de bon sens et de recul, et finalement notre site (et notre environnement) ne s’en porte que mieux.

Et toi alors, vous en pensez quoi vous ?

NB : euh… on dit que les cordonniers sont toujours les plus mal chaussés… eh bien, j’avoue et je capitule, mon site actuel n’est pas le plus éco-conçu qui soit, mais c’est en cours de changement (ah oui, je ne t’ai pas dit, je change de « nom commercial » bientôt et, par la même occasion, de site !).

61 Comments

  1. Patricia

    Oh oh quel teasing cette chute !!!

    Pour revenir au sujet, il donne à réfléchir et concevoir nos pratiques et nos habitudes différemment. Je vais me documenter sur ce terme d’éco-conception car étant sensibilisée également à titre personnel, forcément ça me cause 😉

  2. Claire

    Merci pour cet article ! Une question que je me pose : peut-on éco-concevoir un site en utilisant un CMS (WordPress pour ne pas le nommer) ? Ou doit-on impérativement passer vers du codage « en dur » pour que le site soit léger et performant ?

  3. admin6991

    Il semble plus « évident » de passer par du codage « en dur » car les CMS de type WordPress importe / ont en leur sein beaucoup de fichiers (bien souvent) inutiles et lourds.
    Pour ma part, selon les projets, je code en dur mais j’utilise aussi beaucoup WordPress qui (on ne va pas se mentir) est un super outil : j’essaie juste d’utiliser des thèmes légers et de base que j’agrémente selon le projet.

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